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金币车M4A1升级型与以色列谢尔曼区别科普

发布时间:2015/09/07 08:47:08 来源:贴吧 作者:EnglishWorld1

  Author: Life_in_Black (US server)

  原作者:Life_in_Black(美服)

  Since the French medium tier 8 premium, the M4A1 Revalorisé, first appeared, I've seen countless people throw around the term “Super Sherman”. Mainly they say that this is a Super Sherman, or ask why an Israeli tank is in the French tech tree. The short answer is, this isn't an Israeli tank, and it isn't a Super Sherman, but the full answer is slightly more complicated than that.

  自从法系8级金币中坦M4A1升级型出现后,我看到很多人称其为“超级谢尔曼”。主要问题在于他们称这辆车为超级谢尔曼,或质疑为啥一辆以色列坦克出现在法系科技树上。简短版的回答是:这并不是一辆以色列坦克,这不是超级谢尔曼。而完整版的回答则要略复杂一些。

  So, is this tank being French then? The answer is yes, but it wasn't designed with France in mind. Back in the early to mid 1960s, a Middle East arms race had begun to take shape, with the Soviets supplying relatively new weapons systems to Egypt and Syria, something which alarmed the Israelis greatly. So much like during the 1950s, Israel once again turned to France in regards to upgrading their numerous Shermans with something capable of dealing with these new Soviet weapons, namely the T-54 and T-55 that were forming the backbone of the Egyptian and Syrian armored forces. Thus, the M4A1 Revalorisé was born:

  那么,这是辆法国坦克吗?答案是肯定的,但要记住这并不是为法国人设计的。在1960年代早期至中期,中东诸国开始军备竞赛,苏联向埃及和叙利亚提供了相当现代化的武器系统,这引起了以色列人的高度警觉。很可能是在1950年代,以色列曾再一次求助于法国,为他们装备的大量谢尔曼坦克进行升级,以对抗新式的苏联武器。这里说的苏联武器就是T-54和T-55坦克,他们是埃及和叙利亚装甲部队的支柱。M4A1升级型由此诞生:

  The M4A1 Revalorisé, which means upgraded/improved, was created to test the concept of mounting a much larger cannon on the Israeli Shermans, this time a 105mm. The French used an M4A1 chassis with the 76mm armed “T23” model turret, not the older 75mm M3 turret as used on the Israeli M-50 and the WWII vintage Firefly. Even so, the turret needed a large counterweight added to the rear, as well as a large muzzle brake and new low pressure HEAT ammunition so as to make the cannon work.

  为了在以色列的谢尔曼上安装一门比原来大很多的主炮,制造了M4A1升级型,以进行概念验证。法国人所用的是M4A1的底盘,该坦克原来用的是装76mm炮的“T23”型炮塔,而不是更老式的装75mm炮的M3炮塔。以色列的M-50,以及二战时期的古董萤火虫装的就是M3炮塔。即使使用了较新型的炮塔,仍然需要在炮塔后面安装大量配重以平衡重量,同时还需要一个巨大的炮口制退器,以及采用低膛压发射的新型破甲弹才能使这门主炮得以工作。

  Aside from the initial proof of concept vehicle that is the Revalorisé, all of the conversions were done in Israel using guns purchased from France. In addition to mounting the guns and modifying the turrets, Israel also converted these M4A1 Shermans to use the HVSS suspension, replacing the outdated and less efficient VVSS. They also replaced the original engines with the much more efficient 460hp Cummins VT8-460 diesel engine, much like the Israelis had done with the M-50s not too long before.

  除了最初进行概念验证的M4A1升级型,其他所有的改装都是在以色列完成的,使用了从法国买来的主炮。除了安装新型主炮和改进型的炮塔,以色列人还用HVSS悬挂对M4A1进行了改装,替换了过时且效率更低的VVSS悬挂。同时,就像不久前他们对M-50进行的改装一样,他们还替换了原版的发动机,换装了更有效的460hp康明斯VT8-460柴油发动机。

  Most people think of this 105mm armed Sherman as the “Super Sherman” as that's been the name used for years in even reputable sources. Other sources will say that the term Super Sherman refers to an M4A1 chassis with the HVSS suspension, so an M4A1E8. However, the truth is a lot more simple than that, as Israel did in fact have a naming system in place for its Shermans:

  大多数人都把装105mm炮的谢尔曼叫做“超级谢尔曼”,即使是一些颇有名声的资料上,这名字也用了很多年。另有一些资料将采用HVSS悬挂的M4A1底盘称为超级谢尔曼,比如M4A1E8。但是,事实上这要简单得多,以色列人对于他们所使用的谢尔曼坦克,有一套命名规则。

  As can be seen from the picture (which comes from an official 1968 IDF Armored Corps memory book commemorating Israeli armored forces during the Six Days War), the Shermans are called in order, Sherman M-3, Sherman M-1, Sherman M-50, and Sherman M-51. (Hebrew is read from right to left, and mostly contains no vowels) This might be confusing at first, especially when the tank itself was known as an M4, but it makes a lot of sense once you realize that the distinction in the names comes solely from the armament mounted in each version. The M-3 mounted the 75mm M3, the M-1 mounted the 76mm M1A1 or M1A2, the M-50 mounted the French CN 75-50, and the M-51 mounted this new 105mm cannon. At no point has Israel ever differentiated vehicles based on the chassis or suspension, as indeed, even the small number of 75mm CN 75-50 armed M10 tank destroyers were also called M-50 and lumped together with the Sherman mounted versions in terms of statistics and numbers operated. So we're left with the French 105mm cannon and a designation for the tank as M-51. The only logical conclusion to this is that the name of the tank came from the name of the gun itself like on the other Sherman variants, however the gun was newly built just for Israel, so there's no guarantee that it had a name at the time the conversion happened, even if one was assigned later. So we're left with pretty much just the barrel length.

  如图(这张图来自1968年以色列国防军官方引发的纪念册,以庆祝六日战争期间的装甲部队的胜利),这些谢尔曼坦克按顺序分别是:谢尔曼M-3、谢尔曼M-1、谢尔曼M-50,以及谢尔曼M-51。(希伯来文是从右向左读的,大多数不含原音。)第一眼看上去或许会让人觉得乱,特别是这坦克本身就叫做M4。但如果你发现这些不同的名字和各自所用的武器相关的话,就很好理解了。M-3安装的75mm M3炮,M-1安装的是76mm M1A1或M1A2炮,M-50安装的是法国CN 75-50炮,而M-51安装的是新型的105mm加农炮。以色列人从不根据底盘和悬挂来区分车辆,实际上,少量安装75mm CN 75-50的M10坦克歼击车也被称为M-50,在统计和计算数目时也混在一起计算。让我们回头来看法国的105mm炮和M-51这个型号,唯一符合逻辑的解释就是,和其他型号的谢尔曼一样,也是按照主炮来命名的。然而,这门炮是专为以色列新开发的,即使后来有了专门指定的型号,也不能保证当时进行改装时就有名称。所以说,差不多只有倍径数可以用来命名。

  There is precedent as well for this, given the cannon it was based on the 105mm CN 105-57, was in fact 57 calibers long, or L/57. (caliber in this instance denoting the barrel's length in mm divided by the caliber of the weapon itself, also in mm) It is therefore not inconceivable then, that the Israelis made a similar judgment call with this particular gun, and designated it CN 105-51 to denote its length. Obviously, while this isn't confirmed, it would explain the name of the tank and why the French prototype had an L/51 barrel that appears to be the same length as that of the Israeli M-51.

  而且这也是有先例的,这门炮是基于105mm CN 105-57炮开发的,而原版炮名称中的57就代表了倍径,或者叫L/57。所以没有什么可奇怪的,以色列人对于这门特殊的炮做了相似的命名,型号为CN 105-51,以表示其身管长度。虽然还没有被确认,但这显然能解释坦克的名称,以及法国人的原型车为啥有一门L/51炮,和以色列的M-51上火炮的长度一样。

  An Israeli M-51 finding a new lease in life, as well as an identity crisis (from The Big Red One):

  一辆以色列的M-51找到了第二春,同时也引发了身份认同危机(下图为电影剧照,来自电影《红一纵队》,或译为《铁血军营》)。

  In fact, “Super Sherman” itself doesn't make any sense, as it's oddly specific and isn't in Hebrew nor is it some sort of abbreviation or amalgamation of certain letters for a vehicle that the IDF loves, like Magach. It's not a nickname either, as Israeli nicknames tend to be very simple, and are usually further simplified from what the IDF's Ordnance Corps uses. For instance, no matter what model of Magach is in question (be it an older M48 variant like the Magach 3, to a highly upgraded M60 version, the Magach 7), it's still only called Magach by the soldiers.

  实际上,“超级谢尔曼”这名称本身根本说不通。这名字非常古怪,并不是以希伯来文书写,也不是特定词汇的缩写或混合(以色列国防军爱用的方式,如马加奇)。这个也不是昵称,因为以色列人倾向于使用简单的的昵称,而军需部门会进一步简化这些昵称。比如,马加奇坦克,不管是具体哪个型号的(较老式的M48改装型号叫马加奇3,大改的M60叫马加奇7),士兵们都笼统地称为马加奇。

  And while we're on the subject, there are several other names that have been attributed to Israeli vehicles are either completely made up, or were never used by Israel or the IDF. Of note is that even well known, and reputable historians will use these terms as well, simply because they're so prevalent and previous books and sources will use them, so nobody ever bothers to find out if the terms are historical or not:

  说到这个话题,以下是其他一些和以色列车辆相关的名称,都是完全虚构的,或者说以色列或以色列国防军从没用过这样的名字。主要是因为即使那些著名的、有声望的历史学家也在使用这样的名称,仅仅是因为这名称很流行,以前的书和资料也这样用,所以无人关心这些名称是否历史。

  Ti-67: Near as I can tell, this may have been some sort of generic Israeli name for the captured Tiran tanks, as it's literally an abbreviation of Tiran 1967, denoting the name of the tanks (Tiran) and the year they were first captured (1967). Therefore, there is no mythical upgrade of the T-54/55 or T-62 known as a Ti-67, because if it was ever used it's just a generic term for that family of tanks.

  Ti-67:我要说,这大概是以色列人赋予缴获的蒂朗坦克的某种通用名称。这是蒂朗1967(Tiran 1967)的缩写,表明了坦克名称(Tiran)和首次缴获的年份(1967)。因此,并没有什么神秘的、由T-54/55或T-62升级而来的Ti-67,因为如果真用过这个名称,那也是只是这一系列坦克的通用名称。

  Tiran 1, 2, 3: I've seen the names Tiran 1, 2, and 3, thrown about to denote unmodified T-54s, T-55s, and T-62s respectively in Israeli service. These are more fictitious designations, as those vehicles were always known as the Tiran 4, Tiran 5, and Tiran 6 respectively. It sounds kind of like someone was a fan of Star Wars, with the “prequels” coming long after the original trilogy. On a related note, Israel has never differentiated between modified and unmodified versions of the Tiran 4, 5, and 6, either. Oftentimes, you'll also see a Tiran 4 or Tiran 5 modified with the 105mm L7/M68 denoted as an "Tiran 4Sh" or Tiran 5Sh". This is likewise unhistorical, as Israel never differentiated between an unmodified Tiran and a modified one. The "Sh" most likely stands for Sharir (Muscle), which is the Israeli name for the 105mm L7/M68, so "Sh" most likely evolved from there as a way to denote a rearmed Tiran, but this isn't an Israeli distinction.

  蒂朗1、3、3:我见过有用蒂朗1、2和3这样的名称的,以此来分别表示在以色列服役的、没有改装过的T-54、T-55和T-62。还有更加科幻的名称,分别是蒂朗4、蒂朗5和蒂朗6。看来某些人是星球大战的爱好者,看过了原来的三部曲还不过瘾,还要来个前传三部曲。做个提示,以色列人从没用过蒂朗4、5、6这样的型号来区分改装或没改装的型号。经常还能看到将换装105mm L7/M68炮的蒂朗4或蒂朗5称为“蒂朗4Sh”或“蒂朗5Sh”,这也是不历史的,因为对于蒂朗坦克,以色列人从不区分改装和未改装的。这里的“Sh”很可能是表示Sharir(肌肉),这是105mm L7/M68炮的以色列名字,所以“Sh”很可能是由此而来,用以表示换装主炮的蒂朗坦克,但这不是以色列人的做法。

  Isherman: This is literally an amalgamation of the words Israeli and Sherman. Never used by Israel, and like “Super Sherman”, it appears to have been invented by an author/historian or possibly a modeling company. Once upon a time, little was known about the Israeli modified Centurions, so it's not surprising that some sort of catchy name or designation like “Isherman” or “Super Sherman” would be used to help differentiate these vehicles from their base versions.

  以色曼(Isherman):这是以色列和谢尔曼的混合词,就像“超级谢尔曼”一样,以色列人从没用过这名称。看来这是由历史学家或者模型厂商发明的称呼。在以前,几乎没人知道以色列改装的百人队长坦克,所以起一个多少能吸引眼球的名字或代号也并不奇怪。比如“以色曼”或“超级谢尔曼”这样的,可以帮助人们将其和原始版本进行区分。

  So to recap, yes the M4A1 Revalorisé is historical for France, no it's not an Israeli vehicle even if it was the prototype for the Israeli M-51. And the term Super Sherman is not historical, even if it is widespread. Which means that none of these vehicles are “Super Shermans” as there is no such thing.

  总之:M4A1升级型属于法系是历史的,虽然这是以色列M-51的原型车,但本身并不是一辆以色列车。虽然被流传甚广,但超级谢尔曼这个名称并不历史。也就是说,这些都不是“超级谢尔曼”,也没有“超级谢尔曼”这辆车。

  PS: Currently the engine on the M4A1 Revalorisé is wrong, as the Israelis were the ones to overhaul the Shermans with the HVSS and the Cummins VT8-460, not the French. It should be using a Continental engine, like other M4A1 Shermans, not an engine that was only ever mounted in Shermans by Israel as part of their extensive overhaul program.

  另:目前游戏中M4A1升级型的发动机错了。是以色列人对谢尔曼进行了大改装,换上了HVSS悬挂和康明斯VT8-460发动机,而不是法国人。所以正确的发动机是和M4A1一样的大陆发动机。只有在以色列人彻底大改的谢尔曼上,才有那个康明斯发动机。

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